Bio-micro-manipulation commonly refers to the manipulation of small bioligical material such as micro-organsims, cells, tissues, DNA, etc.

Habilitation à Diriger des Recherches (HDR)

In France, the HDR award is a general requirement for supervising PhD students and applying for Professeur position.


Equivalent TD hours, is the reference hour to calculate the teaching duties. The rules are as follows: 1h of course = 1.5hETD, while the others, e.g. 1h of tutorial (TD) = 1h of practical work (TP) = 1hETD.

INSA Centre Val de Loire

Institut National des Sciences Appliquée Centre Val de Loire.

The INSA Centre Val de Loire was established on 1 January 2014 following the merger of the Val de Loire ENI (National Engineering School) and Bourges ENSI (Graduate Engineering School).

On the Bourges campus two engineering courses are available to students with the Industrial Risk Control (MRI) and Information Technology and Cybersecurity (STI) departments, and one apprenticeship-training course, Energy Risks and the Environment (ERE), is taught together with the Cher Chamber of Commerce and Industry (CCI) Hubert Curien CFSA (Apprentice Further Training Centre) in Bourges.

See Also Institut National des Sciences Appliquée.

Institut National des Sciences Appliquée (INSA)

The INSA (National Institute of Applied Sciences) is an engineering scool. There are 6 INSA institutes: Centre Val de Loire, Lyon, Rennes, Rouen, Strasbourg, Toulouse. The INSA Group, this is also 7 partner institutes and 1 institute in Fès, Morocco: INSA Euro-Mediterranea.


Microfluidics deals with the behaviour, precise control and manipulation of fluids that are geometrically constrained to a small scale (e.g. typically sub-millimeter) at which capillary penetration governs mass transport. It is a multidisciplinary field at the intersection of engineering, physics, chemistry, biochemistry, nanotechnology, and biotechnology, with practical applications in the design of systems in which low volumes of fluids are processed to achieve multiplexing, automation, and high-throughput screening.


Microrobot is commonly seen as a reprogrammable, microscopic machine (e.g. with dimension less than 1mm) with partly or fully self-contained capabilities entitled by on-board motion, perception, and learning.

point-of-care (POC)

Point-of-care is defined as medical diagnostic testing at or near the point of care—that is, at the time and place of patient care.

PRISME Laboratory (PRISME)

Laboratoire Pluridisciplinaire de Recherche en Ingénierie des Systèmes, Mécanique, Énergétique.

The PRISME Laboratory is from University of Orléans and INSA Centre Val de Loire (EPRES 4229).

The PRISME laboratory seeks to carry out multidisciplinary research in the general domain of engineering sciences over a broad range of subject areas, including combustion in engines, energy engineering, aerodynamics, the mechanics of materials, image and signal processing, automatic control and robotics. The laboratory is split in 2 units: i) Fluids, Mechanics, Materials, Energy (F2ME) and ii) Images, Robotics, Automatic control and Signal (IRAuS). There are about 170 research professors, engineers, technicians and PhD. students working for this laboratory across several sites in Bourges, Orléans, Chartres, and Châteauroux.

See Also INSA Centre Val de Loire.