Belharet, Karim and Folio, David and Ferreira, Antoine


This paper presents the endovascular navigation of a ferromagnetic microdevice using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based predictive control. The concept was studied for the future development of microrobots designed to perform minimally invasive interventions in remote sites accessible through the human cardiovascular system. A system software architecture is presented illustrating the different software modules to allow three-dimensional (3-D) navigation of a microdevice in blood vessels, namely: (i) vessel path extraction, (ii) magnetic gradient steering, (iii) tracking and (iv) closed-loop navigation control. First, the navigation path of the microrobot into the blood vessel is extracted using the Fast Marching Method from the pre-operation images (3-D MRI imaging) to guide the microrobot from the injection point to the tumor area through the anarchic vessel network. Based on the pre-computed path, a Model Predictive Controller is proposed for robust time-multiplexed navigation along a 3-D path in the presence of pulsative flow. The simulation results suggest the validation of the proposed image processing and control algorithms


  • microrobot
  • gradient controlled motion
  • endovascular navigation


  title = {Three-Dimensional Controlled Motion of a Microrobot using Magnetic Gradients},
  author = {Belharet, Karim and Folio, David and Ferreira, Antoine},
  journal = {Advanced Robotics},
  year = {2011},
  month = may,
  note = {In 2013 one of the Advanced Robotics\' most cited articles from 2011 publication},
  number = {8},
  pages = {1069--1083(15)},
  volume = {25},
  annotate = {Cordless Technology for Milli/Micro/Nano Robots Guest Editors: Fumihito Arai and Lixin Dong},
  doi = {10.1163/016918611X568657},
  eprint = {},
  hal = {00619080},
  keywords = {microrobot, gradient controlled motion, endovascular navigation},
  publisher = {Taylor \& Francis}